Raft user study

Raft is a consensus algorithm designed to be easier to understand than Paxos. To measure Raft's understandability, we conducted an experimental study using CS students at two universities. We recorded a video lecture of Raft and another of Paxos, and created corresponding quizzes. This page makes our materials available for anyone interested. We think these are valuable resources for anyone learning consensus (whether Raft or Paxos or both).

The Raft lecture covered the content of the Raft paper except for log compaction; the Paxos lecture covered enough material to create an equivalent replicated state machine, including single-decree Paxos, multi-decree Paxos, reconfiguration, and a few optimizations needed in practice (such as leader election). The quizzes tested basic understanding of the algorithms and also required students to reason about corner cases. Upper-level undergraduate and graduate students from an Advanced Operating Systems course and a Distributed Computing course participated in the study: each student watched one video, took the corresponding quiz, watched the second video, and took the second quiz. About half of the participants did the Paxos portion first and the other half did the Raft portion first in order to account for both individual differences in performance and experience gained from the first portion of the study. We compared participants' scores on each quiz to determine whether participants showed a better understanding of Raft. We also surveyed participants after their quizzes to see which algorithm they felt would be easier to implement or explain.

Paxos materials

Raft materials